â€œTrue art is characterized by an irresistible urge in the creative artist.â€ Â – Albert Camus
Henry Ward Beecher similarly wrote, â€œEvery artist dips his brush in his own soul, and paints his own nature into his pictures.”
You donâ€™t have to look far to find quotes like these, because art is something we consider intensely human. Art and the artist are so thoroughly intertwined that we canâ€™t bear to think of one without the other.
For better or worse, weâ€™re going to have to rethink this comfortable little notion. Â Machine intelligence is advancing to the point where algorithms have begun to invade the world of culture and the aesthetic. Â From recommendations to evaluation to the production of art itself, computers are becoming a force to be reckoned within the creative realm.
The Search for Creative Assets
When you make a TV ad in Ukraine (as I have), you generally do it on a tight budget. You certainly donâ€™t have the money to buy the rights to the latest hit by a big pop star or a vintage Beatles classic. Â There are some local musicians who can create something for you, but thats a pretty involved effort and, to be frank, the quality isnâ€™t worth it.
I found a good solution with DeWolfe Music, which is an online database that gives you access to thousands of songs from unknown composers and performers. Â You can search by music genre, keyword (e.g. an artist that youâ€™re trying to emulate) and tempo, quickly find what you need and license the music for a small fee.
Newer services, such as Pandora and Spotify, deploy a similar idea in order to build custom radio stations. Â Rather than a human programming director choosing your music, you can just give the software some clues about what you might want to listen to and it designs a selection from a nearly infinite database to cater to your mood and preference.
This is all done through the use of complex mathematical techniques, such as Bayesian classifiers and Gaussian copulas, that recognize similarities between data sets. Â So just like a sommelier might ask you what wine you typically like and offer you something similar, recommendation algorithms can do the same with music, films and even art.
Being able to search and find elements of art and culture is one thing, but can computers appreciate quality?
Mike McCready has shown that they can. Â His company, Music X-Ray, offers a service where composers can upload their music to evaluate its hit potential and it has been shown, in many cases, to outperform professional music executives (reportedly predicting the success of Norah Jones when many industry experts were skeptical).
As crazy as the idea sounds, youâ€™ve probably recently listened to many songs identified by the service. Â Every major label now uses some version of it and theyâ€™re not alone. Â Movie studios employ a similar service, called Epagogix to tell them which scripts are likely to become box office hits.
And it doesnâ€™t stop there. Â Music scholar and composer David Cope has built algorithms which create music that has drawn critical acclaim. Â In fact, even music experts canâ€™t tell the difference. Â When Copeâ€™s computer generated music was played along with a Bach piece and another original composition, they couldnâ€™t correctly identify which was which.
What is Creativity?
As impressive as all of this is, it creates a particularly thorny, visceral problem: Â If creativity can be reduced to an algorithm, doesnâ€™t it lose its soul?
While I admit, I find something troubling in all of this as well, after thinking it through I have come to believe that artificial intelligence actually has the potential to help us appreciate creativity even more, in much the same way asÂ Richard Feynman explains how understanding the inner workings of a flower help him acknowledge its beauty.
Our brains, in many ways, are inferior to computers. Â They transmit information at the relatively feebleÂ rate of 200 mph, vs the speed of light for computer chips. Â They get tired, need nourishment, age, forget things and donâ€™t interface with other databases of information effectively. Â Objectively speaking, they are slow, inefficient and prone to error.
Their saving grace is that they are a massively parallel complex network. Â They are made up of 100 billion neurons and each one can connect to any other. Â These interfaces, called synapses, optimize themselves as they strengthen and decay with use and link to the outside world through our five senses of sight, touch, taste, hearing and smell.
While computers have relatively few active pathways at work at any given time, we have millions, giving rise to infinite permutations of thoughts, feelings, bodily functions and sensory inputs. Â Perhaps not surprisingly, these hierarchies get tangled, resulting in strange loops that manifest themselves in what we have come to know as original creativity.
As Douglas Hofstadter said, â€œIn the end, we self-perceiving, self-inventing, locked-in mirages are little miracles of self-reference.â€
Rethinking the Creative Process
The creative process has always been cloaked in mystery and artistic types tend to be resistant to formality. Â Nevertheless, professional individuals and organizations strive to develop an effective framework to enhance the productivity and quality of their work and creativity researchers have been able to identify some basic principles of creativity.
However, in light of the breakthroughs in machine creativity, I think that we need to revisit past thinking about creativity and identify three major processes:
Forming Intent: Every creative endeavor has its purpose. Â Designers work on a brief that someone else creates while true artists form their own purpose, but in either case, the final result is, in essence, a solution to a particular problem.
For example, my purpose in creating ads was to sell a product, while Picassoâ€™s purpose in creating cubism was to establish a fundamentally different way at looking at the world. In the final analysis, both are judged by the significance and the degree to which the original intent was fulfilled.
Searching the Domain: As Howard Gardner explained in his highly regarded study, Creating Minds, great creativity requires a thorough knowledge of the domain. Â Picassoâ€™s cubism, for example, was inspired by his encounter with obscure African art. Â The larger your database of experience, the greater your ability to create.
Computers obviously far outperform humans in this regard. Â They have practically limitless memory and their vast computational power enables them to search incredibly quickly and accurately.
Tangling Hierarchies: As Iâ€™ve written before, great breakthroughs come from synthesizing across domains, whether that be Picassoâ€™s blending of European and African art or Rock and Rollâ€™s unique fusion of various american music styles. Â It is when two or more ideas collide in a meaningful way that people find inspiration and creative flow.
It is this last trick, that of emulating the strange loops in our mind, which computers have recently learned how to do, that has given rise to machine creativity. Â David Cope, for example, found that his computer generated music was dull and lifeless until he injected an element of randomness into his algorithms.
Flying By Wire
Pilots donâ€™t really fly planes anymore as much as they direct them. Â These days, their controls and instruments donâ€™t actually connect to the plane’s mechanism, but to computers which translate their intent into meaningful action. Â In doing so, they make flying far safer and more efficient.
This is known as flying by wire and we donâ€™t see anything threatening or strange about it. While at first it may seem to be a bit more disconcerting when computers start navigating the realm of abstract thought rather than the mechanics of aviation, it shouldnâ€™t be, any more than driving a car should affect our feelings about walking.
So what makes us creative? Â Our ability to form our own intent. Â It is only through creating a purpose that is uniquely our own that we can fully embody the human spirit.
image credit: ornaross.com
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Greg Satell is an internationally recognized authority on Digital Strategy and Innovation. He is available for consulting and speaking engagements in the areas of digital innovation, innovation management, digital marketing and publishing, as well as offshore web and app development. Check out his site, Digital Tonto and follow him on twitter.
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